Lesson 3

Korean lessons: Lesson 3

Phonological notes
  1. Syllable-final Consonants (받침):
1) Theoretically, any consonant can be in the 받침  (syllable final) position. In reality,  , , and are not used as 받침.
2) Some of the consonants merge into one sound when they are in the syllable-final position.  Orthographically, however, they remain different. Summarized as follows:
consonant endings 받침 sound examples 
,  [k] 부엌 
 [n]  
, , , , ,  [t] , , , , , all pronounced as [ ]
 [l]  
 [m]  
,  [p] ,   both pronounced as []
 [ng]  
3) These merged sounds regain their original values when they are followed by a zero-initial syllable (i.e. vowel).
+(topic/subject marker)=[가기 kagi]
부엌 +(place marker) =[부어케 puo^k`e]
+(temporal marker) = [나제 naje]
+(place marker) =[나체 nach`e]
+(top./sub. marker)=[이비 ibi]
+(top./sub. maeker) =[이피 ip`i]
 
2. Rules of Pronunciation
 2.1. Liason (받침 carry-over)
1) A 받침 is carried over by the following syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-initial.
ex)
국이  [구기]    문이 [무니]   
밥을  [바블] 옷이 [오시 ] 
잎이[이피]밖에  [바께]
2) The second part of a double 받침 is carried over by the folowing syllable when the following syllable starts with a zero-syllable.
ex)
앉아요[안자요]읽어요  [일거요]    
밟아요  [발바요]      핥아요[할타요]  
읊어요[을퍼요]없어요   [업서요]
 
2.2.  Nasalization
When a final (non-nasal) consonant is followed by a nasal initial (,), the non-nasal consonant absorbs the nasality, keeping its place of articulation. Remember, '' in the initial position is not a nasal consonant but a zero.
,   
, , , , ,   / before or
,  

ex)
갑니다 → [감니다]       낱말 → [난말]        먹는다   [멍는다]
               
 

2.3. Aspiration
         When [h] is adjacent, a consonant is influenced and aspirated.
 
  / before or after 
 
 
ex)
좋다 →  [조타]노랗다 → [노라타]      
생각하다 → [생가카다]     입히다 →[이피다]
 
2.4. Palatalization
When or is followed by [i], a paplatalization occurs.
[t] ㅈ [ch]
[t`][ch`]  / before
ex)
미닫이→[미다지]굳이 →[구지]같이 →[가치]
 
2.5. Liquidation
  /before another
ex)
전라북도 [절라북도]신라[실라]

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